A friend wondered
Has a referendum or plebiscite ever had a positive outcome, in your opinion?
A friend wondered
A friend wondered Has a referendum or plebiscite ever had a positive outcome, in your opinion?A Referendum ] which legalized divorce in Ireland.
A friend wondered Has a referendum or plebiscite ever had a positive outcome, in your opinion?
Swiss suffragettes were still fighting for the right to vote in 1971 Switzerland's unique system of direct democracy requires a national referendum for constitutional change so the rights of Swiss women were at the mercy of those who could vote in such a referendum - men http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/politics/swiss-suffragettes-were-still-fighting-for-the-right-to-vote-in-1971-10514445.htmlSwitzerland's Long Way to Women's Right to Vote http://history-switzerland.geschichte-schweiz.ch/chronology-womens-right-vote-switzerland.html
Timeline 1886 Fruitless petition of women in Zurich for women's right to vote 1893 The Swiss Association of Female Workers demands for women's right to vote 1904 Switzerland's Social Democratic Party integrates the demand for women's right to vote into their new platform. 1909 Several regional associations form the Swiss Association for Women's Right to Vote that pleads for all aspects of equal rights for women. 1912 The Social Democratic Party demands for women's right to vote in canton St. Gallen. The motion gets blocked by a majority of liberal and conservative members of parliament. Similar parliamentary initiatives in cantons Basel, Bern, Geneva, Neuchâtel, Zurich and Vaud are fruitless as well. 1918 After World War I, women's right to vote is one of the central demands in the general strike. 1919 Switzerland's parliament instructs the government to prepare the introduction of women's right to vote. The government does not start with this job for decades. 1919-1921 Women's right to vote is rejected in several cantonal referendums (Geneva, Neuchâtel, Basel, Zurich, Glarus and St. Gallen). 1920-1929 Conservative women unite and plead for division of work between men and women: "Women should stay at home". 1929 A petition by several assciations of women, by the Social Democratic Party and by the trade unions for women's right to vote cannot move anything. 1929-1939 World economic crisis: women are sent back to the kitchen. The situation is not favourable for women's rights. 1939-1945 World War II: while most Swiss men serve as soldiers of the Swiss Army for several months per year, women keep Switzerland's economy going. 1946-1951 After World War II there is some sort of political awakening, old demands like the introduction of a social security system and the integration of the Social Democratic Party into the broad coalition government are possible now. But women have to wait. Even in progressive cantons like Basel, Geneva, Ticino, Zurich, Neuchâtel, Solothurn and Vaud referendums bring negative results. 1951 The federal government presents a report to the parliament saying that it was not time for women's right vote on the federal level while it was rejected in all cantonal referendums. 1957 A cantonal referendum in Basel allows the introduction of women's right to vote on local level. 1957 "Cold War": Switzerland's government fears a communist attack, prepares for better air-raid precautions and wants to introduce a general duty of service as air-raid wardens for women. Now the politicial associations of women protest loudly against new duties without new rights. The government gives in and prepares a law for the introduction of women's right to vote. 1958 The conservative opponents to women's right to vote accept the law in parlament for tactical reasons: If the new law is rejected in a referendum now, it will take years or even decades before a new referendum on this question will be possible. 1959 Public campaign on the referendum: Only the Social Democratic Party, the trade unions, a very small independent party and the Communist Party support women' right to vote, the major liberal and conservative parties remain undecided, the right wing parties and even some rural association of women oppose it. 1959 A majority of Switzerland's men say no in a national referendum on women's right to vote on February, 1st: 654,939 (67%) no vs. 323,727 (31%) yes. In some smaller cantons in central and eastern Switzerland the no-majority reaches more than 80%, in Appenzell Innerrhoden even 95%. Only three French speaking western cantons say yes: Vaud (51%), Neuchâtel (52%) and Geneva (60%). Vaud introduces women's right to vote in a referendum on cantonal and local level. Neuchâtel follows in September 1959, Geneva in 1960. 1959 Conservative women found a Federation of Swiss Women against Women's Right to Vote 1966 First cantonal referendum in favor of women's right to vote in a German speaking canton: Basel-City. 1968 Basel-Land follows Basel-City 1969 Canton Ticino (Italian speaking, southern Switzerland) 1962 Switzerland's federal government wants to join the European Council and to sign the European Convention on Human Rights for geo-political reasons (Cold War!) but Switzerland does not keep up to the European standards ... While the government proposes to declare an exception concerning women's right to vote, some progressive associations of women protest loudly. 1968 Student's revolts against conservative structures all over western Europe - and the open protest is only the top of the iceberg: western society is changing. Switzerland's government decides to hold a referendum on women's right to vote once again. 1971 Finally on February, 7th women's right to vote is accepted in Switzerland with a majority of 621,109 (66%) yes vs. 323,882 (34%) no. But in central and eastern Switzerland there are still seven cantons with a no-majority. Four more cantons introduce women's right to vote on cantonal and local level by referendums: Fribourg, Schaffhausen, Zug and Aargau. 1971 Parliamentary elections (October, 31st: 11 women (5,5%) are elected members of parliament. 1985 Referendum on a revision of the constitution: Equal rights for men and women accepted with 797,702 yes vs. 525,885 no votes. 1984 First woman elected member of Switzerland's government. 1985 Referendum on a revision of the Civil Code: Equal rights for men and women in the family are accepted with 921,743 yes vs. 762,619 no votes. 2004 Referendum on a law to introduce a paid maternity leave accepted
A friend wondered Has a referendum or plebiscite ever had a positive outcome, in your opinion?A Referendum ] which legalized divorce in Ireland. Yes, good one.
Citizenschallenge wrote:Switzerland’s Long Way to
Women’s Right to Vote
It took them long enough! That’s what happens when only one sex can vote. I heard that in the US the only reason Prohibition passed is that so many men were at war and couldn’t vote against it, and women were at the forefront for passing Prohibition, even though they couldn’t vote then.
As for woman suffrage, I found this on Wikipedia, something I was unaware of. So it wasn’t passed by a majority of the (male) voters. I wonder how long ot would have taken if it needed a popular vote.
The Nineteenth Amendment was first introduced in Congress in 1878 by Senator Aaron A. Sargent. Forty-one years later, in 1919, Congress approved the amendment and submitted it to the states for ratification. It was ratified by the requisite number of states a year later, with Tennessee’s ratification being the final vote needed to add the amendment to the Constitution. In Leser v. Garnett (1922), the Supreme Court rejected claims that the amendment was unconstitutionally adopted.