Widdershins: “You really can’t bring aether theory into this at all.”
If it fits I don’t see why not. There have been proponents of an aether as the medium for light and gravity for at least 200 years and there are some today. Besides Le Sage, both Newton and Einstein posited an aether. Einstein had to give it up only because an aether requires a preferred frame and relativity won’t allow it. He couldn’t have both so he chose relativity.
We can get to all the effects of Special Relativity from an aether in a preferred field and we can derive the Lorentz transformation without too much difficulty with geometry. I did this many years ago and put it aside because it was so obvious and I didn’t have much interest in relativity. I may look at it again.
Widdershins: “I doubt there can be a single elementary particle from which all things are built. The only thing you could change with that is the shape. … The structure of the universe as we know it seems to demand multiple fundamental particle types. The way they interact with each other is governed by properties they have, whether we understand them or not. … For the particles to come together to form a larger mass would require interaction between the particles.”
I obviously think it is quite likely that everything we know comes from one kind of particle, a fermion I like to call the aetherette and one anti-particle, a boson, for which I can accept the name Higgs. Nature seems to be very efficient; if one (or two) will do, why invent more?
I’ve just started trying to figure out how aetherettes would interact. Since they would have no mass, they would not have an obvious means of expressing inertia or energy. Since they would be rigid bodies, collisions would be perfectly elastic. I suppose there might have to be a rule for conservation of velocity or position rather than conservation of momentum or energy. I don’t know how we would describe or explain an object which would be displaced and stop moving on its own without a collision to make it stop.
If we posit a coexisting Higgs field I suppose we would have to decide whether there would be any interaction between the aetherettes and the Higgs bosons at this level. If we take the idea from the standard model that the Higgs gives matter its mass, then that expression of mass would have to occur at some level of constructs. I think it more likely that it would be at a higher level, perhaps at a level where mass is required for angular momentum.
I don’t have a feeling for where charge would be developed. I suppose it could be at the level of the constituents of quarks. I suspect magnetism is the result of particles flowing as a result of alignments of and/or within molecules acting like little pumps. Some part of this would probably be developed along with or even before the development of charge.
The existence of action at a distance, as in gravity, is still being questioned. Newton didn’t accept it and opted for something like either an intrinsic property of matter or a push from an aether. Push gravity is the most intuitive and the easiest to explain. I don’t accept Le Sages idea of external pushes because it requires so many interactions with very restrictive conditions.
I prefer the idea of a medium with pushes from oscillating particles and a reverse shadowing effect to explain gravity. This idea needs much work before it could be considered a theory but I think it has promise. If we consider that an aether will permeate all matter including the space between the nucleus and the electrons the shadowing idea makes more sense.
If we take away the idea of external bombardment (per Le Sage and others) and replace it with a vibrating field (oscillating aetherettes) and add the idea of reverse shadowing we can get to an explanation analogous to pressure in a volume wherein attraction between two bodies is caused by a gradient of lower local pressure between the two bodies. In other words, the bodies are pushed towards each other by the ambient pressure of the medium (the aether) due to a lower local pressure between the two bodies. This idea accommodates the theory and observation of gravitational shadowing by Allais and others.