[size=24]The irreducible, code-instructed process to make cell factories and machines points to intelligent design
Evolution has been a central point of the origins debate. Abiogenesis however provides far better elucidation of what mechanisms explain the origin of biological systems better: A intelligent designer, through power, information input, wisdom, will, or natural, non-guided, non-intelligent mechanisms, that is : random chance or physical necessity, long periods of time, mutation and natural selection, or self organisation of matter.
Behes definition of Irreducible complexity can be expanded, and applied not only to biological systems, but also to systems , machines and factories created by man, that require a minimal number of parts to exercise a specific function, and this minimal number of parts cannot be reduced to keep the basic function. The term applies as well to processes, production methods and proceedings of various sorts. To reach a certain goal, a minimal number of manufacturing steps must be gone through. That applies in special to processes in living cells, where a minimal set of basic processes must be fully functional and operational, in order to maintain cells alive.
Following irreducible processes and parts are required to keep cells alive, and illustrate mount improbable to get life a first go:
Reproduction. Reproduction is essential for the survival of all living things.
Metabolism. Enzymatic activity allows a cell to respond to changing environmental demands and regulate its metabolic pathways, both of which are essential to cell survival.
Nutrition. This is closely related to metabolism. Seal up a living organism in a box for long enough and in due course it will cease to function and eventually die. Nutrients are essential for life.
Complexity. All known forms of life are amazingly complex. Even single-celled organisms such as bacteria are veritable beehives of activity involving millions of components.
Organization. Maybe it is not complexity per se that is significant, but organized complexity.
Growth and development. Individual organisms grow and ecosystems tend to spread (if conditions are right).
Information content. In recent years scientists have stressed the analogy between living organisms and computers. Crucially, the information needed to replicate an organism is passed on in the genes from parent to offspring.
Hardware/software entanglement. All life of the sort found on Earth stems from a deal struck between two very different classes of molecules: nucleic acids and proteins.
Permanence and change. A further paradox of life concerns the strange conjunction of permanence and change.
Sensitivity. All organisms respond to stimuli— though not always to the same stimuli in the same ways.
Regulation. All organisms have regulatory mechanisms that coordinate internal processes.
[size=12]chemist Wilhelm Huck, professor at Radboud University Nijmegen
[size=12]A working cell is more than the sum of its parts. “A functioning cell must be entirely correct at once, in all its complexity,”
[size=16]Following is the description of parts and processes in a theoretical protocell, which are essential and irreducible:
What Might Be a Protocell’s minimal requirement of parts ?]
[size=12]The Cell membrane[size=12] separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment. [size=12]Thats the exterior factory wall that protects the factory.
[size=12]The Nucleus ( only in eukaryotic cells )[size=12] is the Chief Executive Officer (CEO). [size=12]It controls all cell activity; determines what proteins will be made and controls all cell activity.
[size=13]DNA repair mechanisms [size=12] Proofreading enzymes’ to prevent the occurrence of slight changes in sequence when [size=12]DNA[size=12] replicates.
[size=12]Plasma membrane gates[size=12] Control of Input Flow, Functions of Material Identification and Material Extraction. Regulate what enters and leaves the cell; where cells makes contact with the external environment. [size=12]That’s the Shipping/Receiving Department. It functions also as the communications department because it is where the cell contacts the external environment.
[size=12]The Cytoplasm[size=12] includes everything between the cell membrane and the nucleus. It contains various kinds of cell structures and is the site of most cell activity.[size=12] The cytoplasm is similar to the factory floor where most of the products are assembled, finished, and shipped.
[size=12]Mitochondria/chloroplasts[size=12]: Function of Energy Generation /The power plant. [size=12]Transforms one form of energy into another
[size=12]Mitochondrial membranes [size=12]keep protein assembly lines together for efficient energy production.
[size=12]Membrane-enclosed vesicles[size=12] form packages for cargo so that they may quickly and efficiently reach their destinations.
[size=12]Internal membranes[size=12] divide the cell into specialized compartments, each carrying out a specific function inside the cell. [size=12]That are the compartments in a manufacturing facility.
[size=12]The Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)[size=12] is the compartment where the Assembly lines reside. (where workers do their work)
[size=12]The Golgi apparatus:[size=12] What happens to all the products that are built on the assembly line of a factory? T[size=12]he final touches are put on them in the finishing and packing department. Workers in this part of the plant are responsible for making minor adjustments to the finished products.
[size=12]Ribosomes [size=12]build the proteins , [size=12]equal to the Workers in the assembly line.
[size=12]Signal-Recognition Particles (SRP) [size=12]and signal receptors provide variety of instructions informing the cell as to what destination and pathway the protein must follow.[size=12] Thats the address on the parcel where it has to be delivered.
[size=12]Kinesin Motors:[size=12] Are the cargo carriers in the cell. [size=12]That are the forklift carriers in a factory.
[size=12]Microtubules:[size=12] They provide platforms for intracellular transport , amongst other things. [size=12]That are the internal factory highways.
[size=12]Lysosomes:[size=12] are capable of breaking down virtually all kinds of biomolecules, including proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, lipids, and cellular debris.[size=12] Thats the maintainance crew. It gets rid of the trash, and to dismantle and dispose of the outmoded machinery.
[size=12]A complete transcriptional machinery. [size=12] including the three subunits of the RNA polymerase, a factor, an RNA helicase, and four transcriptional factors (with elongation, antitermination, and transcription-translation coupling functions)
[size=12]Protein-processing, -folding, secretion, and degradation functions. [size=12]GroEL/S and DnaK/DnaJ/GrpE, the signal recognition particle, its receptor, the three essential components of the translocase channel, and a signal peptidase, one endopeptidase, and two proteases.
[size=12]FtsZ , essential for [size=12]Cell division
[size=12]Cation, ABC transporters, a PTS for glucose transport, phosphate transporters. S[size=12]ubstrate transport machinery
[size=12]Glycolytic substrate-level phosphorylation. Required for [size=12]ATP synthesis
[size=12]Ribulose-phosphate epimerase, Ribosephosphate isomerase, and Transketolase, allowing the synthesis of pentoses (PRPP) from trioses or hexoses.
[size=12]Dihydroxyacetone phosphate required for [size=12]Lipid biosynthesis through phosphatidylethanolamine
[size=12]This should make it evident that a theoretical natural, non-intelligence requiring transition from a supposed RNA World to a DNA world, to a fully working living cell, even the most simple , is unlikely to the extreme. It reinforces [size=12]what Urey and many other scientists, origin of life researchers said : Abiogenesis is impossible.
[size=12]Harold Urey, a founder of origin-of-life research, describes evolution as a faith which seems to defy logic:
[size=12]“All of us who study the origin of life find that the more we look into it, the more we feel that it is too complex to have evolved anywhere. We believe as an article of faith that life evolved from dead matter on this planet. It is just that its complexity is so great, it is hard for us to imagine that it did.
[size=12]Paul Davies, the fifth miracle, page 54:]
Life as we know it requires hundreds of thousands of specialist proteins, not to mention the nucleic acids. The odds against producing just the proteins by pure chance are something like 1O^40000 to 1. There are indeed a lot of stars—at least ten billion billion in the observable universe. But this number, gigantic as it may appear to us, is nevertheless trivially small compared with the gigantic odds against the random assembly of even a single protein molecule. Though the universe is big, if life formed solely by random agitation in a molecular junkyard, there is scant chance it has happened twice.
[size=12]1. High instructional coded complex information content (or specified complexity) and irreducible complexity constitute strong indicators or hallmarks of intervention of a (past) intelligent powerful agent.
[size=12]2. Cells require high genetic and epigenetic information content (or specified complexity) and utilize systems and subsystems that cannot be reduced.
[size=12]3. Naturalistic mechanisms or undirected causes do not suffice to explain the origin of information (specified complexity) or irreducible complexity.
[size=12]4. Therefore, intelligent design constitutes the best explanations for the origin of information and irreducible complexity in biological systems.